Reviewed by Magdalene Eboso RN, MSN, MBA, Mercy Medical Center

Bottom line: Bio-K+, a probiotic containing Lactobacilli, was given within 48-72 hours of antibiotic administration in 4 acute care hospitals and did not significantly change the HA-CDI incidence rate ratio or C. difficile positivity rate.

This was a study conducted in 4 acute-care hospitals across an integrated health region for a period of about 3 years (Sep 2016- Aug 2019). Bio-K+, a probiotic containing several Lactobacillus species, was given to patients around the time of antibiotic administration. The study focused on >55 and older which only accounted for 78% of all hospital acquired CDIFF cases. No Lactobacillus bacteremia events were noted. In adjusted analyses, hospital acquire C. difficile infection (CDI) rate decreased non-statistically significantly by 8.2%, and there was no change in the adjusted C. difficile positivity rate. In summary, Bio-K+ administered around the time of antibiotics did not significantly change HA-CDI incidence.

Leal J, Shen Y, Faris P, Dalton B, Sabuda D, Ocampo W, Bresee L, Chow B, Fletcher JR, Henderson E, Kaufman J, Kim J, Raman M, Kraft S, Lamont NC, Larios O, Missaghi B, Holroyd-Leduc J, Louie T, Conly J. Effectiveness of Bio-K+ for the prevention of Clostridioides difficile infection: Stepped-wedge cluster-randomized controlled trial. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2024 Apr;45(4):443-451. doi: 10.1017/ice.2023.169. Epub 2023 Dec 11. PMID: 38073551; PMCID: PMC11007362.

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