Bug in the Program: Can AI understand implications of bacteremia like an ID consultant?

Reviewed by Sara Karaba, MD, PhD, MHS, Johns Hopkins University

Bottom line: ChatGPT-4 did not measure up to ID consultants regarding recommendations for bacteremia.

Our jobs as ID practitioners and antimicrobial stewards are safe (for now). The antimicrobial stewardship team at a hospital in France compared management plans for patients with bacteremia between ChatGPT-4 and ID consultants (considered standard of care). The authors examined performance at the time of initial blood culture and at day 3 for diagnostic work up, empiric antibiotics, source control, definitive antibiotics, follow-up, and definitive therapy as well as overall global management. After examining 44 cases of bacteremia, the authors concluded that overall, the AI management plan was optimal in 1 patient (2%), satisfactory in 17 (39%), harmful in 7 (16%), and in 39% of patients recommended consultation with an ID specialist.

Maillard A, Micheli G, Lefevre L, et al. Can Chatbot Artificial Intelligence Replace Infectious Diseases Physicians in the Management of Bloodstream Infections? A Prospective Cohort Study. Clin Infect Dis 2024; 78:825–832.

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