Abstract and Un-gated Access:

White Papers Completed:

Practical approaches to C. difficile prevention https://doi.org/10.1017/ice.2018.209

White Papers In Development: 

  • S. aureus
  • Respiratory Infections





Chinese Translation

Part I
Part II
Part III
Part IV



In 2003, the Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Foundation published recommendations for infection prevention and control (IP&C) in an effort to reduce the risk of acquisition and transmission of pathogens among people with CF.1 However, both IP&C and CF are dynamic disciplines, and during the past decade new knowledge and new challenges necessitated the development of updated IP&C strategies for this unique population.

Reviewed August 2018.


Healthcare personnel (HCP) attire is an aspect of the medical profession steeped in culture and tradition. From Hippocrates's admonition that physicians' dress is essential to their dignity, to the advent of nurses' uniforms under the leadership of Florence Nightingale, to the white coat ceremonies that continue to this day in medical schools, HCP apparel and appearance is associated with significant symbolism and professionalism. Recent years, however, have seen a rising awareness of the potential role of fomites in the hospital environment in the transmission of healthcare-associated microorganisms. Although studies have demonstrated contamination of HCP apparel with potential pathogens, the role of clothing in transmission of these microorganisms to patients has not been established. The paucity of evidence has stymied efforts to produce generalizable, evidence-based recommendations, resulting in widely disparate practices and requirements that vary by country, region, culture, facility, and discipline. This document is an effort to analyze the available data, issue reasonable recommendations, and describe the needs for future studies to close the gaps in knowledge on HCP attire.

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Reviewed June 2018.


Three family education guides focusing on hand hygiene, respiratory etiquette, and safe handling of blood and body fluids were also created as part of this guideline but are not contained in this document. These guides are tools to educate families about how to help with minimizing the risk of pathogen transmission. These guides can be found at Patient Guides on Healthcare-Associated Infections.

Reviewed November 2018.

The guidelines are intended to provide practitioners with a standardized approach to the rational, safe, and effective use of antimicrobial agents for the prevention of surgical-site infections (SSIs) based on currently available clinical evidence and emerging issues.

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Reviewed March 2018.

In their recent Clinical Practice Guideline ‘Prevention of Orthopaedic Implant Infection in Patients Undergoing Dental Procedures’, the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS) reversed their 2009 informational statement, which asserted that “given the potential adverse outcomes and cost of treating an infected joint replacement, the AAOS recommends that clinicians consider antibiotic prophylaxis for all total joint replacement patients prior to any invasive procedure that may cause bacteremia.” After a comprehensive literature review by the work group, this statement was replaced with a recommendation that acknowledges the lack of evidence to support this practice. In deciding whether to endorse the most recent AAOS guideline, the SHEA Board expressed concern about the potentially confusing language of the recommendation: “The practitioner might consider discontinuing the practice of routinely prescribing prophylactic antibiotics for patients with hip and knee prosthetic joint implants undergoing dental procedures;” however, the Board ultimately voted to endorse the guideline because it overrides the 2009 guideline. SHEA’s position on the use of antimicrobial prophylaxis before dental work in patients who have prosthetic joints is that the evidence does not support its routine use.

Creutzfeldt‐Jakob disease (CJD) is a degenerative neurologic disorder of humans. CJD is caused by a proteinaceous infectious agent. Prion diseases elicit no immune response, result in a noninflammatory pathologic process confined to the central nervous system, have an incubation period of years, and usually are fatal within 1 year after diagnosis.


Reviewed 2014.